Skin Pigmentation and Sunburn

Pigmentation, spots, sunburn… these are also referred to as solar dermatitis, caused by ultraviolet rays in the sun. When our skin is exposed to ultraviolet light, it attempts to prevent damage by increasing the black pigment called melanin pigment, but when burnt, these cells containing melanin turns black. These will become freckles and quickens skin aging and are usually around the eyes and cheeks.

A tanned and sunburnt skin may appear healthy, but skin damage may likely have occurred.

The depletion of the ozone layer is a cause for concern for the environment and also to humans. Exposure to sunlight is essential to healthy body building, but overexposure without protection will damage the skin.


Ultraviolet rays stimulate pigment-forming cells found in the skin, and the enzyme tyrosinase is activated, working to increase the black melanin pigment. A sunburnt state is when the skin is blackened by an increase in the melanin pigment.

In addition to the ultraviolet rays, it is thought that the excessive use of cosmetics, and friction by rubbing of towels may also be likely causes. In addition, freckles may be due to genetic causes, but in any case, any pigmentation that already exists will darkened even more with UV exposure.

Prevention of sunburn

In Singapore, we are exposed to UV rays all year long. Protective measures should be used, such as taking certain Vitamins, using sunblock and even carrying umbrellas and wearing hats.

Vitamin C suppresses the production of melanin and lightens existing melanin caused by sunburn. It also repairs sun damaged collagen. Daily consumption of Vitamin C is a good protection against UV damages.

To prevent spots and freckles, daily intake of anti-oxidant Vitamins E and B2 helps to reduce lipid peroxidation or tissue damage by free radicals.

Care When Sunburnt

Cool skin as quickly as possible. Since skin’s protective barrier is broken when sunburnt, do not use cosmetics. If exposure is unavoidable, use sun block and moisturizers to protect skin.

Dealing with spots and freckles

While there is no definitive treatment for spots, freckles and pigmentation, daily skin care is essential. Moisturizing lotions, taking Vitamins E and B2 and C are good skin care routines.