Motion Sickness


Motion sickness occurs when riding on land, sea or air and feels nauseous, dizzy and tired. It’s a condition in which a disagreement exists between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system’s sense of movement. In the early stages, the head feels heavy, along with weakness and yawning, and when nausea sets in gradually, vomiting may occur. Generally, motion sickness affects people who are sensitive to the balance of movements and motions of the body. However, fatigue and lack of sleep, and gastrointestinal problems can also cause motion sickness during commuting.

Tips to avoid motion sickness

  • Overworking, lack of sleep or even overeating are some of the causes of motion sickness.
  • Take a light meal before a long journey.
  • Choose a seat in the vehicle where vibration and roll is least.
  • On a passenger ship for example, take the center of the vessel.
  • When you look out view from the window, always look as far as possible.
  • Occasionally open the windows to let in fresh air and let stale air out.
  • Choose an anti-motion sickness medication or supplement that has a timed-release effect (take one or two hours before travelling) so you can take them according to your journey time.
  • Drugs with meclizine hydrochloride helps on long-distance bus and plane journeys, while dimenhydrinate are good for short journeys. Both are effective when taken 30 minutes to 1 hour before travel.
  • The best way to overcome motion sickness is to alight from the vehicle if possible.
  • If getting off a vehicle is not possible, then move to an area where there’s better ventilation and less motion.
  • You can also try loosening clothing articles like the tie or belt and sit as comfortable as you can.
  • Recline on your seat in the direction of travel, and try to fall asleep if you can.
  • If a child is dizzy, giving him a sense of security is important. Lay the child in a comfortable position facing the direction of travel.


There are over 200 types of headaches, and the causes range from harmless to life-threatening. The description of the headache, together with findings on neurological examination, determines the need for any further investigations and the most appropriate treatment.

Mechanism of headache

Headache is a pain sensed in the nerves and muscles of the head and neck, as well as the meninges (the membranous coverings of the brain and spinal cord). The brain itself cannot feel pain, so a headache has nothing to do with the brain hurting. It is really a pain somewhere around the brain, being picked up by nerve endings located in the head.

Type of headaches

Migraine headaches can be caused by reduced blood flow to various areas of the cerebral cortex. Symptoms of migraines include sensitivity to light and noise, nausea, vomiting and intense throbbing pain that is usually on one side of the head.

Tension headaches are caused by muscular strains in the head and neck and/or emotional stress. Tension headaches are usually dull, steady, aching pains on both sides of the head. Sometimes, tension headaches develop into throbbing pains, leading researchers to believe that they may be closely related to migraines. Eye strain (poor vision) can trigger frequent tension headaches.

Cluster headaches are headaches that occur repeatedly over a period of weeks or even months. Cluster-headache pain usually occurs on one side of the head and is centered around the eye. The causes of cluster headaches are unknown, but may be related to changes in blood flow because substances that affect blood flow, such as alcohol, can trigger cluster headaches.

Care of migraine

Migraine treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms and preventing additional attacks. If you know what triggers your migraines, avoiding those triggers will help prevent headaches. Treatment may include over-the-counter medications, prescription medication, rest in a quiet, dark room, hot or cold compresses to your head or neck, massage and small amounts of caffeine.

Managing stress and rest

Stress is linked to a number of medical conditions, including headaches and migraines. Once they get going, headaches can generate more stress, which will make the pain worse. The more stressed you’re under, the more rest you need.


Fatigue, also referred to as tiredness, exhaustion and lethargy describe a physical and/or mental state of being tired and weak. Although physical fatigue and mental fatigue are different, the two often exist together – if a person is physically exhausted for long enough, they will also be mentally tired.

Mechanism of fatigue

Physical fatigue is the transient inability of a muscle to maintain optimal physical performance, and is made more severe by intense physical exercise. Mental fatigue is a transient decrease in maximal cognitive performance resulting from prolonged periods of cognitive activity. It can manifest as lethargy or directed attention fatigue.

Medically, fatigue is a non-specific symptom, which means that it has many possible causes. Fatigue is considered a symptom because it is a subjective feeling reported by the patient, rather than an objective one that can be observed by others.

Symptoms of fatigue

    The main symptom of fatigue is exhaustion (severe fatigue) after a physical or mental activity. The patient does not feel refreshed after resting or sleeping. Severe fatigue may undermine the person’s ability to carry out their usual activities. Fatigue signs and symptoms may be of a physical, mental or emotional nature. Below is a list of some more possible signs and symptoms:

  • Headache
  • Impaired judgment
  • Indecisiveness
  • Irritability
  • Loss of appetite
  • Chronic (long-term) tiredness

Caring of fatigue


  • Try to go to bed and wake up at the same time each day.
  • Set your bedroom’s temperature at a comfortable level. It must neither be too cold nor too hot.
  • Do not have your last meal of the day too close to your bedtime – not less than 90 minutes or two hours before you go
    to bed.
  • As bedtime approaches, physically and mentally slow down. Have a warm bath and listen to some soothing music.
    Clear your mind of stressful and worrying thoughts.

Eating and drinking habits

  • If you eat three regular meals each day, eat at the same time each day, and follow a well-balanced diet, your overall health will improve and so will your sleep patterns.
  • If you are underweight, add more calories to your diet, but make sure it is a healthy one.
  • If you are overweight, follow a well-balanced diet and aim for a healthy body weight.

Physical activity

Remember that fatigue-physical inactivity-fatigue vicious cycle. If you are unfit you are more likely to feel tired. Break that cycle. It is important that any physical activity drive is done properly and gradually. Regular exercisers sleep better and suffer much less from fatigue than other people.